Air pollution research paper topics

Air pollution research paper topics

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Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

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To adjust for potential confounding, we also obtained 15 ZIP-Code or county-level variables from various sources and a regional dummy variable to account for compositional differences in PM 2. Above the ocean, these droplets transfer moisture, salt, and even toxins

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Site Tools

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An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.

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California Air Resources Board

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Subgroup Analyses Figure 2.

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The full cohort pape 60, persons living in 39, different ZIP Codes with , person-years of follow-up. Estimates of risk based on predictive, ZIP-Code—specific assessments of exposure were slightly higher than those provided by the nearest data-monitoring site Table 2.

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In a new paper, researchers examine the major limiting factors for microbial degradation in Arctic To estimate the concentration-response function of air pollution and mortality, we fit a log-linear model with a thin-plate spline of both PM 2.

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Monday, February 26, S8 in the Supplementary Appendix.

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We also conducted single-pollutant analyses for comparability.

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The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies. The concentration—response curve in Panel A was plotted for an ozone concentration equal to 45 ppb.

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Sea Swimming Increases Ailments Feb. Furthermore, these agencies do not endorse the purchase of any commercial products or services related to this publication.

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The concentration—response curve in Panel B was plotted for a PM 2.

The authors urgently call for confirmatory studies as even ppaper of clean air Ozone, fine particulate matter, and chronic lower respiratory disease mortality in the United States.

Chronic exposure to fine particles and mortality:

Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality:

S8 in the Supplementary Appendix. Am J Public Health ;

Annual average PM 2.

Cross-validation indicated that predictions were good across the entire study area.

To address these gaps in knowledge, we conducted a nationwide cohort study involving all Medicare beneficiaries from througha population of 61 million, with million person-years of follow-up. Long-term exposure to PM2.

Data on some important individual-level covariates were not available for the Medicare cohort, including data on smoking status, body-mass index BMIand income.

Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality:

Ambient levels of ozone and PM 2.

The estimate of effect size for PM 2.

Environ Health ;

We used R software, version 3.

Cohort Characteristics and Ecologic and Meteorologic Variables. Address reprint requests to Dr.

We also estimated risks in subgroups of persons who were eligible for Medicaid and in whites and blacks alone to ascertain whether the effect modifications according to race and Medicaid status were independent. We thank Stacey C.

Error in exposure assessment remains an issue in this type of analysis and could attenuate effect estimates for air pollution.

Cohort Analyses The full cohort included 60, persons living in 39, different ZIP Codes with , person-years of follow-up.

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. Cohort Characteristics and Ecologic and Meteorologic Variables.

Monday, February 26,

BMJ Open ;6: They manage it thanks in part to molecules called

Ozone, fine particulate matter, and chronic lower respiratory disease mortality in the United States. To examine the robustness of our results, we conducted sensitivity analyses and compared the extent to which estimates of risk changed with respect to differences in confounding adjustment and estimation approaches Sections S2 through S4 in the Supplementary Appendix.

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. Conclusions In the entire Medicare population, there was significant evidence of adverse effects related to exposure to PM 2. Chronic exposure to fine particles and mortality: Annual averages of fine particulate matter particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.

Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: Since the Clean Air Act requires the EPA to set air-quality standards that protect sensitive populations, it is also important to focus more effort on estimating effect sizes in potentially sensitive populations in order to inform regulatory policy going forward. Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.

A new study sheds light on the skin microbiome -- a group of Mortality displacement in the association of ozone with mortality: Although our exposure models had excellent out-of-sample predictive power on held-out monitors, they do have limitations.

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